Line graph is one of the most popular diagram types in IELTS Writing Task 1. In a line graph, you normally expect to see years and therefore describing trends is a key thing to remember.
Below you can find a range of useful grammar and sentence structures to describe trends in line graphs. Please feel free to leave comments to suggest other structures that you think are helpful for other candidates.
1. Direct description:
Example 1: The number of times that Australian teenagers consumed fish and chips reduced from 100 in 1975 to just below 40 in 2000.
Example 2: The number of times that hamburgers were eaten by Australian teenagers witnessed an increase from 10 in 1975 to 100 in 2000.
2. Followed by:
Example 1: In 1940, about 7% of the population of Sweden was older than 65, followed by a possible jump to 25% in 2040.
3. Before and After:
Example 1: Before reaching its peak of about 27% in 2040, the proportion of the Japanese population aged 65 and over was 5% in 1940.
Example 2: After climbing from 9% in 1940 to 15% in 1982, the percentage of the US population who is older than 65 is expected to reach 23% in 2040.
In the two examples above, writing without Before and After are grammatically correct as well.
4. Beginning and Starting at:
Example 1: Starting at/ Beginning at 17 million tons in 1985, the amount of wheat exports of the European Community increased to just above 20 million tons in 1990.
5. Other useful structures to describe comparison:
Example 1: In 1975, Fish and Chips (consumed 100 times per year) was the most popular fast food among Australian teenagers, leaving Hamburgers (consumed 10 times per year) and Pizza (consumed 5 times per year) behind, respectively.
Example 2: In 2000, the consumption of Pizza (about 85 times per year) was more significant than that of Fish and Chips (just below 40 times per year) but was less substantial than that of Hamburgers (100 times per year).
Example 3: Although Fish and Chips (eaten 100 times on an annual basis) was the most popular choice of fast food for Australian teenagers in 1975, it became the less frequently consumed dish (just below 40 times a year) in 2000.
Example 4: In 1990, the annual consumption of Pizza and Fish and Chips of Australian teenage population was both equal to/ met at/ intersected at about 65 times.
Example 5: The peak of Fish and Chips consumption among Australian teenagers was at 100 times per year in 1975, whereas those of Pizza and Hamburgers were reached at 100 times and 85 times per year, respectively, in 2000.